Spain experienced a high number of civilian causalities and large-scale destruction of infrastructure during the Spanish Civil War as many weapons, especially German and Italian bombs, were tested. This image, taken in April 1938, in Luchon, France, depicts civilian refugees fleeing from Franco’s advance into Catalonia during his drive to the Mediterranean. These refugees were part of thousands of civilians that fled Spain, to France, Britain, the United States, and elsewhere, to escape the fighting. Source: Photograph of civilian refugees from the Spanish Civil War. Shots of War: Photojournalism during the Spanish Civil War. Mandeville Special Collections Library. University of California at San Diego, http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/swphotojournalism/Civil.
Re The Spanish Civil War: This is the most important experience of my life, and it always has remained so, and I have never regretted it for a moment.
–Alvah Bessie, 1980.